The ECCC and EPA are responsible for the implementation of the obligations under the agreement. This agreement continues to provide significant opportunities for cooperation between Canada and the United States on air pollution and related issues. The «Ozone» Annex was added to the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement (December 2000) to combat cross-border air pollution, which results in high air quality from ground-level ozone, an important component of smog. The long-term goal of the Ozone Annex is to achieve ozone quality standards in both countries. With regard to the cross-border pollution flows that cause ozone, the Ozone Annex obliges both countries to reduce their emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, precursors to ground-level ozone. This success is particularly relevant for cities. With industrialization and population growth, air pollution is increasing in many developing cities, where pollution can be four to fourteen times higher than the World Health Organization`s health guidelines for air pollutants. Since non-urban sources could also make a significant contribution to urban air pollution, many cities will not be able to reduce air pollution solely through local measures. The convention provides scientific tools, models, data, monitoring methods, guidelines and best practices to enable cities to make holistic progress at the local level to combat air pollution. Air pollution affects us all: it harms human health, harms food security, hinders economic development, contributes to climate change and damages the environment on which our livelihoods depend. The convention provides a platform to discuss these interconnections and take steps to prevent adverse effects. U.S.

cross-border air pollution affects air quality in Canada. Prevailing winds can carry air pollutants from the U.S. to Canada, and these pollutants contribute significantly to the formation of acid rain and smog in some parts of Canada. In 1991, Canada and the United States committed to reducing the effects of cross-border air pollution in the United States. Air quality contract. The agreement was initially negotiated to treat cross-border acid rain and was amended in 2000 to include ground-level ozone, a component of smog. Given the success of this agreement, a deeper engagement with the Executive Body of the Convention to the EEC-UN could help other regions and third countries to implement these lessons and stimulate the dynamics of action with several jurisdictions. After the 40th anniversary of the Convention, the executive body has created a forum for cooperation to reduce air pollution. The aim is to promote integrated approaches to combating air pollution aimed at achieving several benefits for human health, the economy, ecosystems and efforts in all sectors to improve air quality. In the international context, EU member states are working closely with other EEC-UN member states to control international air pollution under the EEC-UN Convention on Long-Distance Cross-Border Air Pollution (Aviation Convention). Adopted in 1979, the Convention celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2019. This agreement aims to reduce cross-border air pollutant movements between Canada and the United States, particularly those that contribute to acid rain and smog, which are required to control its emissions contributing to cross-border air pollution, and to implement specific restrictions or reductions in air pollutants through programs and measures.