Antonio COSTA, Prime Minister of Portugal, said that the 75th anniversary allowed all nations to re-engage in the principles of the UN Charter. While some global challenges are new, he has found that some are recurrent and persistent, including the need to save future generations from the scourge of war. The corrosive effects of poverty, extremism and gender bias also threaten regional and global stability. Climate change and pandemics do not respect borders, he said, and it is only by working together that the world can promote digital inclusion and regulate markets. Climate change is an existential threat, with the oceans being the new frontier of human development and rising temperatures and deoxidation. He called on the international community to preserve the spirit of 1945 and move forward with a sense of common hope. Religious beliefs often try to identify and address fundamental problems in human life, including conflicts between people and societies. In the ancient Greek territories, the virtue of peace was embodied as an Eirene goddess and in Latin territories as the goddess Pax. Their image was typically represented by old sculptors as that of an adult woman, usually with a horn of many and scepter and sometimes with a torch or olive leaves. Mr.

SALVA KIIR MAYARDIT, President of South Sudan, stressed the importance of security council reform and stressed that, since the creation of the United Nations, geopolitical realities have changed, but that the Council has remained the same. Two permanent seats on the Council should be allocated to African countries, which are most affected by unity decisions and resolutions. The security situation in South Sudan has improved markedly, he said, noting that refugees had returned from neighbouring countries. His government is in ongoing talks with the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS) to hand over protection of civilian sites to the South Sudanese police. However, due to constraints imposed by the United Nations, the country faces challenges in this regard. For example, the recently renewed arms embargo against South Sudan has important implications, he said, wondering how his government would arm itself if its ability to obtain weapons was blocked. South Sudan`s relaunched transitional government on national unity had successfully negotiated a peace agreement with the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), a coalition of rebel groups, to be signed in Juba in October. Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi, Prime Minister of Samoa, said much needed to be done to improve the effectiveness of the organization. However, the United Nations has also made significant progress and has been instrumental in supporting Samoa`s path from independence to the present day and in involving small nations as they have designed a better future.